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Lianshan (Mountains standing together)

lienshan

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Lianshan (Mountains standing together) consisted of written Image-numbers and 64 spoken texts.
These texts from around 1700-1600 BC are therefore uniform in layout, easy to memorize.
They were written down later on and became not so uniform as when spoken.
Some single spoken words demanded two written pictographs/characters and the contrary.
Language did too change, and a few of the 64 Image-texts were edited/rewritten.
The reason why Lianshan is so hard to recognize is, that Confucius coined the term 'junzi',
because Lianshan deals with how the son 'zi' should tackle the actual situation of the king 'jun'.

The Image-texts were meant to be read as two sentences divided BETWEEN jun and zi
The sentence ending with jun described the situation of the ruler.
The sentence beginning with zi yi showed the corresponding action to be used by the son.
All pictographs/characters must be read as pairs of two pictographs/characters.
That's one of the reasons why it's called ' mountains standing together'.

There were originally 10 Image-texts with 10 pictographs/characters
Their originally spoken layout was XXXz-ssXXXX
There were originally 54 Image-texts with 12 pictographs/characters
Their originally spoken layout was XXXz-ssXXXX

z-ss means 'ruler' - 'son uses'
X means any word/pictograph/character
(X) means an added word/pictograph/character
(_) means a subtracted word/pictograph/character
........................................................................10 Heavenly Stems
XXXz-ssXXXX 1-2-32-51-57-58
XXXz-ssXX(_ _) 3
XXXz-ssXXXX(X) 52
XXXz-ssXXXX(XXXX) 42
XXXz-ssXXXX(XXXXXXXXXXXX) 11
........................................................................ 12 Earthly Branches
XXXXXz-ssXXXX 4-5-7-13-18-35-37-41-48-49-50-55
XXXXXz-ssXXXX(X) 17-53-59
XXXXXz-ssXXXX(XX) 8-10-20-27-29-45-60
XXXXXz-ssXXXX(XXX) 22-33-46
XXXXXz-ssXXXX(XXXX) 15-28-43-56
XXXXXz-ssXXXX(XXXXX) 12-19
XXXXXz-ssXXXX(XXXXXXXX) 16-24
........................................................................
(X)XXXXXz-ssXXXX 6-34-54-61
(X)XXXXXz-ssXXXX(X) 64
(X)XXXXXz-ssXXXX(XX) 36-63
(X)XXXXXz-ssXXXX(XXX) 37
(X)XXXXXz-ssXXXX(XXXX) 14
(X)XXXXXz-ssXXXX(XXXXXX) 26
(X)XXXXXz-ssXXXX(XXXXXXXX) 62
........................................................................
(_)XXXXz-ssXXXX 21-23-40-47
(_)XXXXz-ssXXXX(X) 44
(_)XXXXz-ssXXXX(XX) 30
........................................................................
XXXXXz-ssXXX(_) 31-38
(X)XXXXXz-ssXXX(_) 9
(XXXX)XXXXz-ssXXXX(XX) 25
........................................................................
 

sparhawk

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Ok, thanks for all that but let's take a moment to start citing references that anyone with an interest in the subject can follow... Please, don't present all that without either taking complete claim for its authorship or citing sources. I don't like to be guessing the provenance of materials and ideas. Again, please.
 

lienshan

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hi sparhawk

I was inspired by a new reading of Lao Dan's text:

Say, speakable unindependent, Dao.
The term 'can be a title' is not an independent clause.
The first, the worldly heaven, entitled the nonexistent.
The mother, the material tenthousand, named the existent.
The former dead bachelor desired by means of looking at her beauty.

A selfish desire arises from the observation of its manifestation.
Both sides of now are the same appearance and different words.
Identical means to arrive at dusk as the darkening exits.
The gate, the mystic multitude, darkens the twilights.

'the first' = the first Xia King Qi
'the mother' = his mother queen Yu
'the former dead bachelor' = the great Yu

I read the text as saying, that Queen Yu had two sons (their father was Gun)
That'll say: Yu and Qi were brothers and not father and son.
That'll say: The very first Xia monarchy was a constitutional monarchy:
The first born Yu was a bachelor/could not produce children.
Yu was therefore representing 'the ruling power' (zi) of the first Xia monarchy.
Qi was therefore representing 'the judging power' (jun) of the first Xia monarchy.
(that's how we explain the constitutional monachy I'm living in)

'junzi' coined as one word by Confucius means thus 'absolute monarchy'.

The persons mentioned occur this way in the Great Image texts:

jun and zi in 53 of the 64 Great Image texts
the queen instead in two of the texts (11 and 44)
the former king instead in seven texts (8-16-20-21-24-25-59)
and other terms are used instead in two texts (23 and 30)
 

lienshan

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Ok, thanks for all that but let's take a moment to start citing references that anyone with an interest in the subject can follow... Please, don't present all that without either taking complete claim for its authorship or citing sources. I don't like to be guessing the provenance of materials and ideas. Again, please.
Someone has to be the first to produce that, which others cite.
I was the first to break the code of Dao De Jing chapter 1.
My translation is 100% correct according to ancient chinese grammar and the dictionaries.

Believe it or not :D
 

lienshan

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hex 32

Here is an example (the Great Image text of hexagram 32):

lei feng heng jun zi yi li bu yi fang
http://chinese.dsturgeon.net/dictionary.pl?if=en&char=雷風,恆;君子以立不易方]lei

The confucian (junzi = 1 person) Richard Wilhelm translation is:

Thunder and wind: the image of DURATION.
Thus the superior man stands firm
And does not change his direction.



The structure of the Lianshan text looks like this:

lei ..... feng ..................... thunder ..... air
heng .. jun ...................... single ........ ruler
zi ...... yi ........................ son ........... uses
li ...... bu ....................... enthrone .... do not
yi ..... fang ..................... change ....... the way

Five pairs of characters are written as two vertical Mountains Standing Together.
The two vertical sentences of five characters have their own meaning:

The 1th: thunder single son enthrones change
The 2th: air ruler uses do not the way

The ten characters read horisontally make this line:

the air of thunder, the son of a single ruler, uses to enthrone the unchanging way


That's the difference between the confucian 1 person and the Lianshan 2 persons readings.
 
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lienshan

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Hexagram 1 image text

http://chinese.dsturgeon.net/dictionary.pl?if=en&char=天行健,君子以自疆不息
tian xing jian jun zi yi zi jiang bu xi

tian ..... xing .................... heaven ...... circulation
jian ..... jun ..................... strong ........ ruler
zi ........ yi ....................... son ........... uses
zi ........ jiang ................... its own ...... boundary line
bu ....... xi ....................... not ........... breathing

The hexagram 1 Tian Image text read horisontally:

The cirkulation of heaven, the son of a strong ruler, uses its own boundary line not breathing

The 1th vertical line: heaven strong son its own not
The 2th vertical line: cirkulation ruler uses boundary line breathing



The Richard Wilhelm translation of the image text:

The movement of heaven is full of power.
Thus the superior man makes himself strong and untiring.


Sounds to me more or less like a fitness-center commercial :pompom:
 

sparhawk

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Thanks for making very clear to me the provenance of your material and conclusions.
 

lienshan

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The only provenance needed is an elementary grammar:

.................................................................................................................

The air of thunder, the son of a single ruler, uses to enthrone the unchanging way.

The independent clause of the sentence (noun + verb) is The air uses.

The air of thunder is independent. The superior man uses to enthrone the unchanging way.

The independent clause of this sentence (noun + verb) is the single superior man uses,
when the noun 'jun' is changed into the adjective 'superior'.

How can a superior man 'enthrone the unchanging way' ?
.................................................................................................................

The cirkulation of heaven, the son of a strong ruler, uses its own boundary line not breathing.

The independent clause of the sentence (noun + verb) is The cirkulation uses.

The circulation of heaven is strong. The superior man uses his own boundary line not breathing.

The independent clause of this sentence (noun + verb) is The superior man uses,
when the noun 'jun' is changed into the adjective 'superior'.

How can a superior man 'use his own boundary line not breathing' ?
.................................................................................................................
 
H

hmesker

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The only provenance needed is an elementary grammar
If that is the case, then you show that you don't understand at all the grammar that you are dealing with. You are fabricating sentences which fail to be grammatically sound, and even if we ignore that fact you fail to translate your fabrications properly:

The 1th vertical line: heaven strong son its own not
Apart from the fact that this is complete rubbish, when a sentence ends with bu 不 this character should not be simply translated as 'not' but as '...or not?', turning the sentence into a question (古代汉语虚词词典, p. 36-37).

The 1th: thunder single son enthrones change
And what on earth does that mean? How can one 'enthrone change'? If you look at the examples of li 立 with the meaning of 'to ascend the throne' you will see that it does not take an object (漢語大詞典, Vol. 8, p. 371). Your translation doesn't make sense.

The 2th: air ruler uses do not the way
Fang 方 does not mean 'the way', the closest that comes to it is 'direction' (漢語大詞典, Vol. 6, p. 1549). Don't trust modern dictionaries when you are dealing with an ancient text.

I was the first to break the code of Dao De Jing chapter 1.
My translation is 100% correct according to ancient chinese grammar and the dictionaries.
You didn't break any code, you just made something up. Please give me the titles of 'the' dictionaries, and prove that your translation is grammatically correct by citing proper sources. You also don't explain why you favour a Mawangdui version of the Daodejing over the received version. In fact you don't explain anything. Linking the Image text to the Lianshan (or better: the misconceptions that you have of this text) is as fancy as saying that King Wen was an alien astronaut who wrote down the manual of his spaceship.
 

lienshan

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Hi Harmen

The horisontal text line is the Judgement.
The two vertical text lines are the two Trigramlines.
Lianshan had only two not six linetexts like the Guicang and the Zhouyi.
That'll say Lianshan had only changing trigrams and not changing lines.

Hexagram 32, Heng, Thunder above Wind
The Judgement:
The air of thunder, the son of a single ruler, uses to enthrone the unchanging way.
The Trigramlines:
If the trigram above is changing: Thunder single son enthrones change.
If the trigram below is changing: Air ruler uses do not the way

Hexagram 1, Tian, Heaven above Heaven.
The Judgement:
The cirkulation of heaven, the son of a strong ruler, uses its own boundary line not breathing.
The Trigramlines:
If the trigram above is changing: heaven strong son its own not
If the trigram below is changing: cirkulation ruler uses boundary line breathing

The vertical Trigramlines are just as difficult to translate as the linetexts of the Guicang and the Zhouyi. I have prefered to use exactly five english words, when showing the very structure of of the five character lines, and my translation is ofcourse almost unreadable. The main problem of one of the lines translated is t.ex. not the last not, but the lack of a verb?

fang meaning 'the way' relates to fang meaning 'two boats in a line'.
The Dao of the two boats is water; that which makes them able to sail.
Lao Dan uses the parable of an independent clause to show the same:
Say_Dao.
The Dao of the two words is a blank space; that which makes them speakable.
The comma's of first line of Dao De Jing is thus:
dao, ke dao fei heng, dao
(, ke dao fei heng,) is symbolizing the blank space (_) between dao_dao
Reading this way is only possible, if the character is 'heng' and not 'chang'
because the imagetext of hexagram 32 'heng' says:
'to stand on his own feet' meaning 'independent'.

Lao Dan was a diviner (Grand historican and astrologer) ;)
 
H

hmesker

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Lianshan had only two not six linetexts like the Guicang and the Zhouyi.
The few fragments that we have of the Lianshan (if we accept these as genuine) are not enough to arrive at such a conclusion.

That'll say Lianshan had only changing trigrams and not changing lines.
No, the few fragments that we have do not automatically lead to that conclusion.

Hexagram 32, Heng, Thunder above Wind
The Judgement:
The air of thunder, the son of a single ruler, uses to enthrone the unchanging way.
The Trigramlines:
If the trigram above is changing: Thunder single son enthrones change.
If the trigram below is changing: Air ruler uses do not the way
Fanciful reasoning without any foundation whatsoever. Source, please. Besides that, the Lianshan fragments give an entirely different Xiang text. I think it would be more useful to do something with that.

Hexagram 1, Tian, Heaven above Heaven.
The Judgement:
The cirkulation of heaven, the son of a strong ruler, uses its own boundary line not breathing.
The Trigramlines:
If the trigram above is changing: heaven strong son its own not
If the trigram below is changing: cirkulation ruler uses boundary line breathing
Ditto.

The vertical Trigramlines are just as difficult to translate as the linetexts of the Guicang and the Zhouyi.
The Zhouyi and Guicang are not that difficult to translate because they use quite consistent grammar. Your fabrications do not, which makes it impossible to make any sense out of them. If a fabricated text does not make any sense you should not blame the lack of grammar but your own premises.

I have prefered to use exactly five english words, when showing the very structure of of the five character lines, and my translation is ofcourse almost unreadable. The main problem of one of the lines translated is t.ex. not the last not, but the lack of a verb?
In other words, you know your fabrications don't make sense. If your fabrications are untranslatable, then don't look at the 'lack of a verb', but question your own assumptions.

fang meaning 'the way' relates to fang meaning 'two boats in a line'.
And which fang would that be and why should the two be related? Source, please.

The Dao of the two boats is water; that which makes them able to sail.
Lao Dan uses the parable of an independent clause to show the same:
Say_Dao.
The Dao of the two words is a blank space; that which makes them speakable.
The comma's of first line of Dao De Jing is thus:
dao, ke dao fei heng, dao
(, ke dao fei heng,) is symbolizing the blank space (_) between dao_dao
Reading this way is only possible, if the character is 'heng' and not 'chang'
because the imagetext of hexagram 32 'heng' says:
'to stand on his own feet' meaning 'independent'.
You don't explain why the Image text of H32 should be related to chapter 1 of the DDJ. Should chapter 43 be related to H32 because it speaks of 益? Your reading of the chapter 1 is grammatically impossible. Ke 可 should be used by a subject.

You haven't answered the questions in my former message.
 
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lienshan

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Your reading of the chapter 1 is grammatically impossible.
Say, speakable unindependent, Dao.
The term can be a title isn't an independent clause.

Lao Dan compares Dao to the double negative of an independent clause. He gives you a choice:

The way of Confucius and Shen Dao cancelling the double negative:
'Say speakable dependent Dao.'

Or this way: Dao is neither the verb nor the noun of an independent clause, so the first negative is the emty space between the verb and the noun. The solution is thus this change 'unspeakable independent', that'll say not to speak that which is between the verb and the noun, that'll say to read/translate the 1th line this way:

Say Dao.

The second negative of an independent clause appears in line 3: wu ming tian di zhi shi
Ancient chinese has different reading directions, and the 'zhi' of line 3 has this function:
zhi cancells the indepent clause by changing the following character into an adjective (-ly).
Line 3 (and the lines 4 and 9) are thus meant to be read from right to left.
The last character shi (meaning first) is meant to be read first and zhi is unspoken.

That's the difference between how to define Zhouyi hexagrams and Guicang hexagrams.
hex 62 its hex 32 meaning hex 32 goes to hex 32 is the Zhouyi way.
hex 32 62ly is the reversed Guicang way (Guicang means reverting to the hidden).

Six lines of Dao De Jing chapter 1 are read from left to right.
The number of characters in each of these six lines are 6 - 6 - 7 - 7 - 8 - 6

The corresponding Zhouyi hexagram is hex 62 xiao guo => 13 tong ren (62.1,5,6)
The corresponding Guicang hexagram is hex 62 xiao guo <= 32 heng (32.2)
And the corresponding Lianshan trigram line is 'Air ruler uses do not the way',
or maybe the second vertical line of the hex 62 image text,
when written in two columns?

I'm still uncertain about how to read the Lianshan divination, but I'm certain,
that Dao De Jing chapter 1 contains a tripple divination of 6 - 6 - 7 - 7 - 8 - 6,
a Zhouyi, a Guicang and a Lianshan divination of the same number hexagram.
 
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H

hmesker

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It is impossible to find any value in your ramblings if you constantly fail to answer my questions or resist to give prober sources and/or references. You have an imaginative mind, but all it seems to produce are imaginations. Nothing you have said so far can be confirmed, not by objective research, not by tracing the steps you took to arrive at your mirages. The latter is impossible because you don't mention your steps at all. Your last message is full of unsubstantiated nonsense, almost every line is just not true. That wouldn't be a problem if you just pointed to some sort of reference which backs up what you say, but it seems you just are not willing to do that. If you don't have any references, just say so. Did you make it all up? Just be clear on that. Do your fabrications come from the mushrooms? Fine by me. But if you refuse to give any motivation or re-traceable research for your ideas, then there is just no point in discussing it and it seems to me that a discussion board is not the right place for your nonsensical monologues.
 

lienshan

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Nothing you have said so far can be confirmed, not by objective research, not by tracing the steps you took to arrive at your mirages.
The difference between you and me is,
that you're a top ten yi scholar and I'm a diviner.

Your facts must be confirmed, because you are a scholar.
My readings can't be confirmed, because I'm a diviner.

Correction:

The number of characters in each of the six lines are: 6 - 6 - 8 - 7 - 8 - 6
 
H

hmesker

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My readings can't be confirmed, because I'm a diviner.
That's a lame excuse, and it perfectly shows the value of what you are saying, or better, the lack of it. You are not willing to discuss anything, you are dodging all questions and it seems you want us to accept your writings at face-value. I wonder who on this forum is willing to do that. Not many, I guess.

Well, it has been fun. Back to my own business.
 
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lienshan

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it seems you want us to accept your writings at face-value
Ofcourse not.
I've nothing to sell and cannot imagine, that anyone here accepts writings at face-value.
This is an 'Explore Divination' forum and that's why I write here.
And I do almost never refer to sources etc.
Back to my own business:

6 - 6 - 8 - 7 - 8 - 6 looks like one to many changing 8 (if it's a Guicang divination).

The last number 8 comes from this 8 character line: ci liang zhe tong chu er yi ming :
Both sides of now are the same appearrence and different words.

Read litterally: ci liang zhe (now both sides) are 3 different words but only one single now.
So maybe Lao Dan meant the 3 characters to be read as one single character?
That'll say that this line might be a 6 characters line according to the meaning?

Read as a readers guide: tong chu er yi ming (same appearence and different words):
All same characters of the whole text must be read/translated as different words.
The 3 dao's are 3 different words, the 2 ke's are different words, the 4 heng's etc.

The first number 8 comes from this 8 character line: gu heng wu yu yi guan qi miao:
The independence of death, the desire of nonexisting, uses to observe their mystery.

This 8 characters line is inplicit a 9 characters line, if the character qi (their) means
death and independence? This line is very hard to read, translate and understand ...
 

lienshan

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You also don't explain why you favour a Mawangdui version of the Daodejing over the received version.
I'm not a daoist and I do not want to make a judgement, whether the Received or the Mawangdui version of Chapter 1 line 7 is the original line? That's why I stick to this 6 characters compromize:
If the Mawangdui version (liang zhe tong chu yi ming) is original, then there are 6 characters.
If the Received Version (ci liang zhe tong chu er yi ming) is original, then there are 8 characters,
but the phrase ci-liang-zhe (both sides of now) is meant to be read as one single character.

The divination numbers of Chapter 1 are thus: 6 - 6 - 8 - 7 - 6 - 6

Zhouyi 668766 = Qian zhi Xiao Chu = hex 15 goes to hex 9 = hex 15.1,2,5,6

Guicang 668766 = Ling zhi ba = hex 15 goes to hex 61 = hex 15.1,2,3,5,6
(line 4 is what's left, when Ling becomes Zhong Fu)

http://zhouyi.sdu.edu.cn/english/newsxitong/selectedPapers/2006517175846.htm

For example, the hexagram 'ling' on the Qin bamboo strips is equivalent to the hexagram 'qian' in Zhouyi.
'ling' means 'mountain'. Hexagram qian comprises two parts:
the upper part is 'kun' (earth) and the lower part is 'gen' (mountain).
The Shuogua zhuan explains the ‘gen’ the same way.


According to Zhouli, the ancient officer 'tai bu' is in charge of three types of Yi divination:
Lian shan, Gui cang, and Zhouyi.
"There are eight 'jing-gua'(trigrams)and sixty-four 'bie-gua'(hexagrams."


A third possibility is t.ex:

Lianshan 668766 = Ling zhi Xiao Guo = hex 15 goes to hex 62 = hex 15.4
 

lienshan

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Linking the Image text to the Lianshan (or better: the misconceptions that you have of this text) is as fancy as saying that King Wen was an alien astronaut who wrote down the manual of his spaceship.
The imagetexts of the hexagrams 7, 18, 41, 48, 49, 50 can be almost original,
if the two characters jun and zi are replaced with xian and wang,
which replace jun and zi in seven of the sixtyfour image texts.

Erlitou exavacations have proved, that the numbers existed, but that writing was not yet invented.
The original Lianshan 'book' of changes was thus by logic an oracle of written numbers and spoken text.
The text was thus by logic very simple structured in order to be memorized.

Ancient chinese had more reading directions, and even a sentence could have a break in the middle,
the first half was to be read in one direction and the second part in the other direction.

The minimum number of characters needed to construct an oracle of 64 hexagrams with 6 linetexts
is according to the above only 8 sentences of 12 characters, that'll say all in all 96 characters.
The first half of the 8 sentences looked probably like this scheme from the Zhouyi image texts:

(Qian above): tian xia you 'below trigram' 'hexagram name' xian
(Kun above): di zhong you 'below trigram' 'hexagram name' xian
(Gen above): shan xia you 'below trigram' 'hexagram name' xian
(Dui above): ze zhong you 'below trigram' 'hexagram name' xian
(Zhen above): lei ..... 'below trigram' ..... 'hexagram name' xian
(Xun above): feng xing 'below trigram' shang 'hexagram name' xian
(Kan above): 'below trigram' shang you shui 'hexagram name' xian
(Li above): 'below trigram' shang you huo 'hexagram name' xian

This corresponds to Shuo Gua with the only exception, that Kan and Li match each other,
that'll say the received character bu (not) is wrong. The Mawangdui Shuo Gua is without bu.
http://chinese.dsturgeon.net/dictionary.pl?if=en&char=天地定位,山澤通氣,雷風相薄,水火不相射,八封相錯。數往者順,知來者逆,是故《易》逆數也

The second half of the eight 12 character sentences are impossible to reconstruct:

wang yi ..... ..... ..... .....

They were simple when spoken, and were probably developed, when writing was invented.

....................................................................................................................

An alternative is, that an inferior 'scholar' wrote 64 clumsy written trigram commentaries?
I've actually until now regarded them as a joke and never used the texts when divining.
 

lienshan

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The Guodian Laozi chapter 25 lines 1 and 2

Here's an example of different reading directions within an ancient chinese text.
It's the Guodian Laozi (buried around 312 BC) chapter 25, the lines 1 and 2:

A form of existence, a flood, killed the prior to the Heavenly.
To be appointed, not inheriting, is the only void and silent birth.

=> : you3 zhuang4, hun4, cheng2 xian1 tian1 di4.
<= : .sheng1 ji4 liao2 du2, li4 bu4, gai3

The first line is read/translated from left to right.
The second line is read/translated from right to left.

http://www.daoisopen.com/A11toA13Chapters25516.html

The subject discussed is Gun, the father of Yu the Great,
who was executed because his lack of succes taming the flood.
Lao Dan was sceptical to the birth of the 1th "Son of Heaven", Qi.
 
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lienshan

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You didn't break any code, you just made something up. Please give me the titles of 'the' dictionaries, and prove that your translation is grammatically correct by citing proper sources. You also don't explain why you favour a Mawangdui version of the Daodejing over the received version.
Chapter 59 http://www.daoisopen.com/B1toB3Chapters594820.html

Heaven's office and the Man's administration are not identical.
Because: is it stingy? Only the Man is stingy!
Is correct speaking "Exellent Good Morning"? Use the correct "Good Morning"!
Only Righteousness, the accumulated virtue of magnitude, accumulates muchness.
Only the Arrogance, not the nonexisting superiority, isn't nonexistent.
No one knows these extremes not knowing their narrowness.
Valid is: "the existing state of the existing states is their mother".
Valid is: "for a long time correct spoken deeply rooted".
Dao, the birth of the seemingly worn-out, lengthens the solidification of the lowest.


<== 6 : zhi4 ren2 shi4 tian1 mo4 ruo4
<== 6 : se4 fu2 wei2 se4 shi4 yi3
<== 7 : zao3 shi4 yi3 zao3 bei4 shi4 wei4
<== 7 : zhong4 ji1 de2 zhong4 ji1 de2 ze2
<== 7 : wu2 bu4 ke4 wu2 bu4 ke4 ze2
8 ==> : mo4 zhi1 qi2 ji2 mo4 zhi1 qi2 ji2
8 ==> : ke3 yi3 you3 yu4 you3 yu4 zhi1 mu3
8 ==> : ke3 yi3 chang2 jiu4 shi4 wei4 shen1 gen1
<== 8 : gu4 di3 chang2 sheng1 jiu4 shi4 zhi1 dao4

The three last characters in bold is the key to code of this chapter
Hexagrams were at the time of Lao Dan expressed thus: kuan zhi heng (hex 20 goes to hex 32)
shi4 means like kuan "to observe/to see" and chapter 1, line 1 says "heng dao"!
The diviner Lao Dan used the Guicang as code. He used one number 8 and five 6 or 7 numbers.
Those knowing the code could thus easily compute the number of characters in six of the lines,
and find out, where the lines were meant to break. kuan = 776668 heng = 667778

That's why the last line of this Dao De Jing chapter 59 is extremely important:
It tells, that the original chapter 1 characters were the tabooed "heng",
and not the characters "chang" of the Received versions!

Addition: "kuan zhi heng" means "hex 20 goes to hex 32" or "hex 20 its hex 32" read from above/from left.
"kuan zhi heng" means "hex 32 hex 20-ly" when read from below/from right. "zhi" becomes unspoken and
the hex-name above/left becomes an adjective (-ly). That makes my translation function.
 
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